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Metaphysical poets of the seventeenth century. And their contribution to English Literature.

The term metaphysical' was first applied by Dryden to the poetry of Donne, which so rich in far-fetched conceits. 'He affects metaphysics' this is what Dryden speaks about the poetry of Donne. Dr. Johnson, following Dryden, applied the term 'metaphysical' to describe a whole school if seventeenth century poetry who wrote in imitation of Donne, and showed some feature of poetry which are akin to those of John Donne, "the father of metaphysical school of poets".  In the ordinary sense of the term metaphysical' means 'based
on abstract general reasoning,' in the Johnson sense of the term which denoted not the philosophical thoughts of Donne but some tricks of his phrasing. Johnson had in mind particularly the extravagant 'conceits' in which Donne clothed his thoughts.

The main characteristics of Donne's poetry are a depth of philosophy, subtlety of reasoning, a blend of through and devotion, a mingling of the homely and the sublime, the light and serious which make it full of variety and surprise. It is this last element of 'surprise that is most important in Donne. Surprising connections of ideas, called 'conceits' are common enough in Elizabethan and Jacobean poetry, no doubt but no poet ever before sprang so many and such strange surprises on his readers as Donne did by his conceits. Thus he has compared the parted lovers to the legs of a pair of compasses, a lover to a spider which 'transubstantiates all', his sick body to a map, his physician to a cosmographer the flea which bites lovers to a bridal bed, because their blood has been mingled in it. This mingling of the lofty and the mean, the sublime and trivial is the essence of his ‘conceits'. John Donne's works can be roughly classified into Love Poetry, Religious Poetry and Elegies and Satires. His love poems, the
songs and sonnets are intensely personal and are characterised by
subtle analysis of all the moods of a lover expressed in a vivid language. John Donne (1573-1631) wrote his Satires. “The Songs and Sonnets”, and “The Elegies” between 1590-1601. He was the most
independent of Elizabethan poets. Among his best known and most
typical of the love poems are "A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning", "The Ecstasie", "The Good Morrow", "A Nocturnal upon St. Lucies Day". His religious poetry include "The Progress of the Soule" (1601) and "The Anatomy of World" (1611). His Holy Sonnets were written after 1610.The elegies are the fullest record of Donne's cynical frame of mind the conflicting moods. His satires are deliberate imitation of perseus.

John Donne
Donne's poetry is a reaction to the fluency and exuberance of Elizabethan poetry and to the conventional mode of petrarch and
others. He made a searching analysis of every mood and emotion in his love poems, and in his religious poems, the same intellectual analysis is prominent. It seeks a blend of intellect and passion, wit and emotion. It is logical in structure and rich in images which are taken from Astronomy, Geography and other fields of learning. Donne's conceits are instruments of persuasion (Helen Gardner) and effect a blend of passion and intellect and thus achieves a unification of sensibility' (T. S. Eliot). Donne is the lover and sensualist, but this mind reviews his love in the terms of philosophy or explores it with the images gathered in his scientific and theological reading. He can perceive beauty but at the very moment of that perception he sees the corpse, the skeleton. His thought is ever at the service if his passions and his passions enter into his thought. He sought out the strongest images which yoked ideas which no one had yet seen together. The metaphysical school of poets in the seventeenth century who are
followers of Donne, reveal some common features delivered from
their 'father.

Some of the more important of these metaphysical poets are: George Herbert, Richard Crashaw, Henry Vaughan (pronounced Von), Abraham Cowley, Thomas Carew and Andrew Marvell.

George Herbert (1593-1633) is of all these poets most akin to Donne the master. He is the saint of the metaphysical school. His poetry constantly offends taste but often gives the impression of a sort of sublimity. The most popular of his poems is The Temple which is a collection of poems, full of faith and fervour and also subtlety of thought and ornament. It is a picture of the many spiritual conflicts that passed between God and the poet in the mind of the poet. The poems are homely, quiet, colloquial and touched with a quaint humour. They are metaphysical in their unusual conceits (though Herbert does not cultivate the learned scholastic imagery of Donne) and in the blend of thought and feeling. His oft-quoted poem, Virtue" is full of surprising images. The 'angry and brave
the rose that bids the rash gazer wipe his eyes; the spring is aa box
where sweets compacted lie and the virtuous soul like seasoned timber never gives: These are some of his remarkable conceits. In spite of these faults of taste, his poems in general how are flashes of beauty. His other poems "The Quip" and "The Pulley" are spun of mere conceits. His well-known poem is "The Caller" from The Temple.

Richard Crashaw's (1613-49) best work is Steps to the Temple, written in honour of Herbert Whom he admired. He possesses certain profoundly poetic qualities in Higher degrees than Herbert. His language is not simple and precise like Herbert's but he has more warmth, colour and harmony. His lyrical flights often remind the reader of Shelley's lyrics, in their fire and fervour. He is
emotional rather than intellectual. At the same time he has metaphysical's fondness for the striking conceit, which often becomes fantastic. This is seen in his poem, "The Weeper"

“Two walking baths, two weeping motions
Portable and compendious oceans"

Henry Vaughan (1622-1695) was a doctor and not a priest like the previous two poets. He was the disciple of Herbert in a more intimate sense. He found God not only in the Bible and the church but also in nature. He anticipates Wordsworth by two centuries. His love of nature recalls the later poet. His Mysticism like Wordsworth's is grounded on his recollection of childhood. His
Retreat anticipates Wordsworth's Immortality Ode". It is an exquisite poem. The poem, "They are all gone into the world of light touches artistic perfection in its choice of rhythms and images. He wrote Silex Scintillans which appeared in two parts in 1650 and 1655. It is written under the influence of Herbert's Temple. Here is a metaphysical conceit in the manner of Herbert "Stars shut up shop." He employs other tricks of Herbert's style- abrupt openings, the questions and ejaculations and whimsical titles. But the poems like “The World" and "They are all Gone into the World of Light" are free from Herbert's influence. In these poems his religious our is highly imaginative. His style is simple and dignified and is free from metaphysical 'conceits'.

Abraham Cowley (1615-67) is a great example of the infant
age of prodigy. The Faerie Queene made Cowley a poet at the twelve, when he wrote Constantina Philetus. His Poetical Blossoms were published when he was fourteen. His best known poems are
“The Mistress". "The Pindaric Odes" and "The Davideris". It is an epic on king David in heroic couplets. The best of his prose works is
his “Essays” "The Mistress" has the influence of Donne's style. He
follows Donne in the free use of far-fetched similes and metaphors
He likens the lover's inconstancy to the vibration of a magnetic
needle before it fixed on the true north. In Pindaric Odes, he retained rime but approximated to what is known as free verse. Cowley lacked intensity of passion and depth of insight. His images are fanciful and decorative, rather than a means of exploring experience. His mind is a Restoration mind and this comes out in such lines as these from the "Of Wit”--
"And Reason, the inferior powers control"

Herbert Grierson observes: in Cowley, the central heat of metaphysical poetry has died down. Less extravagant, This wit is also less passionate and imaginative.

Thomas Carew (1598-1639) had undoubted lyrical gifts. Within the narrow field of amorous complement and disdain he has often attained perfection. some of his poems remind us of Byron's lyrics like She walks in beauty or There be none of beauty's daughter. His language is oratorial and is marred by licence and bad taste. His debt to Donne is to be found in his ability to sustain poetic arguments, his vivid phrases and conceits and sometimes in his
achievement of that fusion of feeling, thought and image which is characteristic of Donne.

Andrew Marvell (1621-78) perhaps the greatest poet of the school, was a puritan, but no sour puritan; he was a humanist, a wit and a high minded patriot. In his lifetime his poems were circulated in manuscript among friends and published only after his death. His poems have been described as the finest flower of the serious and secular metaphysical verse. His work has the subtlety of wit, passionate argument and the learned imagery of the metaphysical
combined with the clarity and control of the classical followers of Johnson. His rhythms are flexible, his melody delicates. He loved
nature and the freshness of the gardens and in all his work there is a
high seriousness and absolute sincerity. His love-poem, "To His Coy
Mistress" and patriotic poem "Horatian Ode" upon "Cromwell's
Return to England" are most popular. His another poem is “The Garden" which shows his delight in nature and his metaphysical qualities like argumentative structure and conceits.

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