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8/17/2018

Middle English Period

    This period started with the Norman conquest in 1066 and ended at the close of the fifteenth century. There are 2 short ages withinn it . The time from 1066 to 1340 is called Anglo Norman Period because the literature of the time was written mainly in Anglo Norman (language) , the France dialect, spoken by the new ruling class of England. The period from 1340 to 1400 is called the Age of Chaucer because Chaucer, the great poet , dominated this period. The time from 1066 to 1500 is called the Dark Ages because what actually happened during that time can hardly be known.     The important facts which influenced the literature of this period are:     1. The English  Parliament was established in 1295.  2. Crusade, the religious battle between Muslims and Christians , took place in between 11th and 13th century.  3. Magna Carta , the great charter which limited the power of the monarchs was passed on 15th June, 1215.  4. In 1362 English was declared to be the language of law and courts.  5. The Feudal system , which had been very strong earlier, collapsed after the Black Death, a plague in 1348-49.  6. In the fifteenth century Reformation of English Church began under the leadership of John Wycliffe  7. William Caxton established printing press in 1476.  8. Renaissance begin with the fall the then Constantinople in 1453. Mohammed II , the sultan of Ottoman Turks and a crusader, defeated the Christians in 1453 and occupied Constantinople , the then capital of Byzantine Empire and the center of classical learning. After the defeat of Christian scholars fled to different parts of Europe where they spread their knowledge. Thus , ancient learning started receiving. This revival of the classical knowledge is called Renaissance. Its features are: curiosity about the unknown, patriotism, desire for unlimited wealth and power, love for adventure, admiration for beauty , care for humanism and fondness for the past.  9. Columbus discovered America in 1492 and Vasco da Gama reached India in 1498.  10. During this period Copernicus (1473-1543) proved that the sun is the center of all planets.      Major Writers of the Period and Their Major Works:    • John Wycliffe (1324-84)  *He is called the father of English Prose.  The Bible (translated into English from Latin)  • John Gower (1325-1408)  Confession Amanita  • Geoffrey Chaucer (1340-1400)  Troilus and Criseyde (1387)  Canterbury Tales (1385-1400)  • William Langland (1332-1386)  Piers Plowman (1362)  • Sir Thomas Malory  Morte ‘d Arthur (1362) , the first prose of romantic.      Main literary Features of the Age:    1. Poetry serves the main Gener.  2. Prose in English get a strong foundation.  3. The English language reaches a considerable standard though old spelling continuous.  4. Drama begin in the form of Mystery Play, Morality Play and Interlude.  5. The writers of the Age are influenced by Dante , Petrarch and Boccaccio.  6. Love, chivalry, and religion are the three main literary subjects of this time.



This period started with the Norman conquest in 1066 and ended at the close of the fifteenth century. There are 2 short ages withinn it . The time from 1066 to 1340 is called Anglo Norman Period because the literature of the time was written mainly in Anglo Norman (language) , the France dialect, spoken by the new ruling class of England. The period from 1340 to 1400 is called the Age of Chaucer because Chaucer, the great poet , dominated this period. The time from 1066 to 1500 is called the Dark Ages because what actually happened during that time can hardly be known.


The important facts which influenced the literature of this period are: 

1. The English  Parliament was established in 1295.
2. Crusade, the religious battle between Muslims and Christians , took place in between 11th and 13th century.
3. Magna Carta , the great charter which limited the power of the monarchs was passed on 15th June, 1215.
4. In 1362 English was declared to be the language of law and courts.
5. The Feudal system , which had been very strong earlier, collapsed after the Black Death, a plague in 1348-49.
6. In the fifteenth century Reformation of English Church began under the leadership of John Wycliffe
7. William Caxton established printing press in 1476.
8. Renaissance begin with the fall the then Constantinople in 1453. Mohammed II , the sultan of Ottoman Turks and a crusader, defeated the Christians in 1453 and occupied Constantinople , the then capital of Byzantine Empire and the center of classical learning. After the defeat of Christian scholars fled to different parts of Europe where they spread their knowledge. Thus , ancient learning started receiving. This revival of the classical knowledge is called Renaissance. Its features are: curiosity about the unknown, patriotism, desire for unlimited wealth and power, love for adventure, admiration for beauty , care for humanism and fondness for the past.
9. Columbus discovered America in 1492 and Vasco da Gama reached India in 1498.
10. During this period Copernicus (1473-1543) proved that the sun is the center of all planets.


Major Writers of the Period and Their Major Works:

John Wycliffe (1324-84)
*He is called the father of English Prose.
The Bible (translated into English from Latin)
John Gower (1325-1408)
Confession Amanita
Geoffrey Chaucer (1340-1400)
Troilus and Criseyde (1387)
Canterbury Tales (1385-1400)
William Langland (1332-1386)
Piers Plowman (1362)
Sir Thomas Malory
Morte ‘d Arthur (1362) , the first prose of romantic.


Main literary Features of the Age:

1. Poetry serves the main Gener.
2. Prose in English get a strong foundation.
3. The English language reaches a considerable standard though old spelling continuous.
4. Drama begin in the form of Mystery Play, Morality Play and Interlude.
5. The writers of the Age are influenced by Dante , Petrarch and Boccaccio.
6. Love, chivalry, and religion are the three main literary subjects of this time.


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