7/17/2019

Robert Frost as a Nature poet.



We can form an idea of Frost as a poet of Nature from a study of the characteristics of his poetry. He can be called a poet of Nature though not in the sense that Wordsworth, Coleridge, Shelley, and Keats were poets of Nature. He possessed an attitude to Nature entirely different from theirs, though on the surface he resembled them to a great extent.

So, overtly, Frost was a poet of Nature of the local and the regional like Wordsworth. The hills, dales, rivers and forests, flowers and trees and plants, birds, beasts, and even insects are accurately and succinctly described in his poems. Schneider says, “..... the descriptive power of Mr. Frost is to me the most wonderful thing in his poetry. A snowfall, a spring thaw, a bending tree, a valley mist, a brook, these are brought not to, but into, the experience of the reader". "A Hillside Thaw" gives a picture of the poet as if he were on his knees trying to feel with his hands the process of snow turning into water. "Birches” vividly depicts the habit and the reactions of the birch trees to a storm.

Wordsworth looked upon the pleasant and beneficial aspects of
Nature, but Frost had a keen eye for the sensuous and beautiful things in Nature as well as for the harsher and cruel and the unpleasant. Lynen says, "Even in Frost's most cheerful Nature sketches there is always a bitter sweet quality. Admittedly he can and does enjoy Nature." His flowers and trees and animals are all
described with affection, yet none of the Nature poems is free from the hints of possible danger, under the placid surface there is always the unseen presence of something hostile. "A Boundless Moment" gives us fresh glimpses of beauty:

Oh, that is the Paradise-in-bloom, I said,
And truly it was fair enough for flowers.

But “Spring Pools" gives us a sense of danger lurking behind the apparent beauty of pools and flowers:

The trees that have it in their pent-up buds
To darken nature and be summer woods.

Spring is traditionally a season of birth, innocence and joy, but in this poem spring ushers in darkness. Treacherous forces are forever breaking through the pleasant surface of the landscape.

In the pantheistic poets of Nature, personality is ascribed to her, but Frost is different. He never sees in the natural world the pervading spirit which Wordsworth saw.

Sometimes Frost speaks directly to objects of Nature as does, Wordsworth but what is high seriousness in Wordsworth is fancy or humour in Frost.

Briefly speaking, Frost exhibits an ambivalent attitude to Nature an attitude of love, of fear; love for its beauty and fear for its sinister design. He draws beautiful pictures of Nature, its flora and fauna, its birds and beasts, but behind them there lurks something sinister, fearful, and hostile to man.

An essay on Emily Dickinson's mysticism in her poems.




Emily Dickinson is obviously a mystic poet. The themes that a mystic poet deals with are concerning God, soul, immortality, union of the human soul with the Divine. Emily Dickinson deals with all these themes in a good number of poems. But before we determine her as a mystic poet, we should define mysticism first, and in the light of the definition we should decide about Dickinson's mysticism.

Different religions define mysticism, or have ideas of mysticism in different ways. We cannot go into details of them all. However, The Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary defines mysticism as,
"The belief that knowledge of God and real truth can be found through prayer and meditation, rather than through reason and through the senses". But many thinkers look upon mysticism in different ways.

But Dickinson's mysticism conceptions. It is a unique form. Dickinson has apprehension conforms to none of their presence of God in Nature. She ponders on the questions of life and death on the nature of the human soul, and the existence of soul after bodily death, and soul's relations with Nature and God. She believes in the immortality of soul, and its very existence before the birth of a person in the bodily form. We can have a clear idea of her mystic conception from her attitude to God, death, and immortality of soul.

Her views about God are expressed in a good number of poems. She often talks about divine love in terms of sexual love. She believes that the entire universe overflows with love and beauty, and that this love and beauty are but a reflection of the Divine whose attributes they are. Divine love is the culmination of all spiritual attainments, and marriage with Christ is the only means of attaining eternity and immortality.

Death is the gateway to the Divine and to immortality, and hence death is to be welcomed rather than shunned. At every step we find Dickinson probing into the mystery of death.

So, it is evident that Dickinson is a mystic poet with her views on soul, soul's relation with God, and death as a gateway to union with God.

"I taste a Liquor never brewed" employs a symbol of wine that has never been brewed. Through such a wine she wants to achieve the stature of an immensely big celestial being to whom even the sum is a lamp-post. Her stature is then admired by the seraphs and saints. This aspiration to rise to gigantic spiritual stature sounds one of her notes of mysticism.

Her attitude to death is mystical. She believes that immortality of soul can be achieved through dissolution, decay and death of the body. Death is a kind of life which is new, and life as it is lived here is a sort of death,
Her attitude to Nature is also mystical. She indicates that the
external objects of Nature do not constitute the knowledge of Nature's mysteries. She deals with the natural objects like the sun and other celestial bodies, the seasons, especially spring and summer, and the birds and the insects as forming part of Nature.

Dickinson has mystical attitude to immortality. The poem "Behind Me Dips Eternity" deals with her notion of immortality. She looks towards the cast as the source of light and life, and towards the west as the soul's ultimate destination, and fixes her attention on the dark span in between. Over the horizon dips eternity, and in front looms immortality.

Dickinson is thus seen clearly as a mystic poet, in her attitude to Nature, her relationship with God, and her conception of eternity and immortality of soul.

Emily Dickinson as a poet of Death.


Dickinson is a great poet of death. Death is her principal subject, and even a modest selection of her poems proves this fact.Death is related to the question of the immortality of soul, and of religion. Such of her poems can be divided into four categories: (1) those on death as possible extinction, (2) those dramatizing the question whether the soul survives death, (3) those asserting a firm faith in immortality, and (4) those directly treating God's concern with people's lives and destinies.

Dickinson meditates on death in many of her poems. She describes death by its external appearance in some of her poems while in some others she imagines her own death, and so has imaginative experiences while dying. In all cases her account of death is characterized by deep psychological insight and imaginative
power. She believes that immortality of the soul can be achieved through dissolution, decay and death of the body. Death is the gateway to the Divine and to immortality, so death should be welcomed rather than shunned. But that is not always the case. Sometimes  she regards death as the end of all earthly things, and the consequence of death is the merging of the elements of human body with the elements of Nature.

However, Dickinson's view on death is unconventional, deeply personal, and refreshingly original. To her, death is a kind of life which is new, and life as it is lived here is a sort of death, she says:

A death-blow is a life-blow to some
Who, till they died, did not alive become.

Death is always related with.onality. She believes that death is not dreadful. It is a medium t rough which one can escape the trials and tribulations of the world. She also regards death as a road to after-life. When the journey of this life ends we are brought "to that odd Fork in Beings Road. Eternity—by term". We find the celestial city of Eternity.

Death is also looked upon as a pilot by Dickinson. "On this Wondrous Sea" shows how the pilot leads the human soul to the shore of eternity through the sea of life. The sea is conceived as a silent one, where no breakers roar, and the storm is over.

In some poems Dickinson views death objectively as an event that happens to somebody else. 'She sees the physical shape of death in all its ugliness and fright, and responds to it not as a philosophical
riddle, but as a physical reality. In the poem "The Last Night that She Lived", "She" died while others waited. There came upon them an
awful leisure -which regulated their faith.

In the oem "I Died for Beauty, But was Scarce," she imagines herself death and talks about her short life in the grave. "l Heard a Buzz Fly describes how the poet imagines that she is going to die. Just then a blue fly appears between the light and the dying poet. A tension is indicated here—a tension between her desire to live and her helplessness before death.

Thus we find Dickinson has explored different aspects of death. She is indeed an eminent poet of death.

Major themes of Emily Dickinson's poems.


Dickinson's treatment of death and dying as an obsession forms a small part of her canvas, indeed. She has dealt with many other themes. Death and dying appears to have occupied a small part of her whole canvas as a poet, against the perspective of the variety of her poetic themes. She has dealt with Nature, love, pain and suffering, immortality, God, and Christ, poetry as an art, besides
death.

Dickinson has dealt with the theme of Nature in a novel way. She looks upon the natural objects like the sun, and other celestial bodies, the seasons, especially the spring and summer, the birds and insects, as forming part of Nature. "My Cocoon Tightens, Colours Tease" describes the bursting open of a chrysalis. She invests the phenomenon with a mystic aura, indicating the possible mysterious handling of all affairs great and small, by the Divine Creator. She is fascinated by the beauty of Nature, but her fascination is mixed with an awareness of the innate mystery and strangeness. Some poems depict Nature's decaying or corrupting power.

A major theme of Dickinson is love. Some of her love poems are psychological studies of the repression of sexual desire, some are symbols of physical desire, some others deal with the expectations of
lovers, and still others with the actual meeting of lovers.

Another noteworthy feature of her poetry is her views about the immortality of the soul. She was inclined to believe in immortality but was always troubled by doubts. She regarded immortality as the "flood subject". Her letters and poems continually referred to the problems of faith, the identity of soul, and the reality of God. In some poems Dickinson asserts her firm faith in the immortality of the soul. "Two lengths Has Everyday" logiéally argues that the identity of the soul cannot be lost because it is immortal. "I taste a
Liquor never brewed" describes the earthly vision of the haunting reality of immortality. The vision of immortality is best upheld in the
poem "Behind Me Dips Eternity."

Dickinson also deals with pain and suffering, their nature, their stages, and their effect upon the human soul. Much of the poet's misery, anguish, and despair is revealed through many of her poems. The philosophy of pain, and the analysis of its specific characteristics are found in poems like "I Measure Every Grief I Meet", "After Great Pain a Formal Feeling Comes", "The First Day's Night Had Come", etc.

The theme of God and religion is quite prominent in Dickinson's poetry. She treats God as an intimate kinsman, and calls Him "Jupiter My Father", "Old Neighbour", and sometimes "Papa Above". She frequently talks of faith and God in the most serious language, and hopes of ultimate redemption".

I hope the father in the skies
Will lift his little girl
Over the stile of "Pearl".

Dickinson was preoccupied with the theme of poetic art also. She believed that creative art was painful because it requires great effort. "Essentials Oils Are Wrung", "Dare you see a soul at White Heat?" are some such poems.

Of course, many other themes, besides the ones mentioned above, are found in Dickinson. All of them make her poetry enjoyable.

Emily Dickinson's attitude towards immortality.




Dickinson was preoccupied with the questions of death and immortality. She was inquisitive about any and her perplexity about it caused her poetic tension. The questions of belief and doubt centring round immortality are prominent in her poetry. She desired immortality. wished that the soul never changed, yet she denied the orthogox of Paradise. (However, 'her confidence that love was an enduring entity supported her hope of immortality. She might have been in doubt sometimes that death was the gateway to immortality, but she firmly believed that the soul's identity could
never be loc She seems to have surveyed every domain Of immortality, and examined its relations •p with death and life.

Dickinson's early poems depict the progress of her belief from life to death. It was like a voyage from an inland to sea. How many times these low feet staggered" descri s the picture of an amazingly still body of a once-busy domestic woman with a kind of tender irony. The coolness of this poem ves way to hot pain which only Christ in Heaven will be able to sti We find in her poem 193, Christ the teacher will explain "I" the pupil the reason for his suffering, in the lovely schoolroom of Heaven. "l felt a Funeral in my Brain" verges" the expression of her feelings which are akin to madness.

In some of her poems Dickinson asserts her firm faith in the immortality of soul. "Two lengths has everyday" logically argues that the identity of the soul cannot be lost because it is immortal. The soul not only perceives an object realistically, but creates imaginatively its full image. The final stanza of the poem asserts that death will not be able to destroy the soul. It will not even chånge its identity because man's individUal consciousness will guide his journey to immortality.

In the poem "The world is not conclusion" the most typical approach to the problem of immortality is perceived. It explores the perplexing inability of philosophers, scholars, and saints, to
equately prove the truth of immortality. It also satirizes the
gestures of religion towards immortality of soul. Dickinson asserts
her belief:

This world is not conclusion
A species stands beyond—
Invisible, as Music—
But positive as sound.-
It beckons, as it baffles—

The vision of immortality is best upheld in the poem "Behind me dips eternity". Here she gives a graphic description of her existence between death and immortality . Eternity dips behind her, and immortality extends beforgrher. he iS in between; and death appears as a drift in the grey eastern horizon, and dissolves into dawn far away before the beginning of the west.

The _earthly vision of immortality's haunting reality is described in "I taste a Liquor never brewed". It expresses through a drinking metaphor, the ecstasy that accompanies a revelation.. The poet is intoxicated with the air, and is a debauchee of dew. Angels and saints go to the windows to see her leaning against the sun, her lamp-post.

Dickinson has examined the question of immortality from different points of view. Her keen interest and sincerity are evident in the intensity of her expressions.

Critical Appreciation of "Paradise Lost" by John Milton.


A Critical Appreciation

(1) (a) Afier toying with the idea of writing on the Arthurian legend, Milton undertook to write on a far greater subject the fall of Adam and Eve and through them the fall of the human race.

(b) The reference, in Milton, to the lore of learning is not mere decoration, it is the very tissue of his thinking. The poem creates a world that is timeless and placeless.

(2) The theme in the simplest term is love. The thesis of the poem is that full recognition of Eternal Providence will justify the ways of God to men.

(3) This epic poem can be read more or less in three distinct parts: the rebellion of the angels; the creation of mankind; the stratagem of Satan against Man and the banishment from Paradise of Adam and Eve for their disobedience.

(4) Besides, having an unprecedented concentration, Milton's epic also has a wider scope in time and space than any other epic poem.

(5) “Paradise Lost" is the outcome of a Puritan's deep reflections on the Bible and he takes great liberty in interpreting ll.

(6) "The name of Milton", says Raleigh, "is become the mark, not of a biography, nor of a theme, but of a style, most distinguished in our poetry". "Paradise Lost' was something demanded of him as an epic poet a rigour against which there was no possible appeal." (Tillyard)

(7) The poet's great achievement lies not only in the portrayal of the majestic figure of Satan but in the slow and steady degeneration of the 'arch fiend' into a slimy, and deceitful serpent. The hero of this epic poem, however, is Adam and not God or Satan.

(8) This epic poem offers ideas and conclusions for man in all ages. Down the ages, all men have been concerned with what seems to be a discrepancy between a benevolent and omnipotent God and their own state of ill.

Introduction
Paradise Lost (1665) is the great epic which Milton had been planning for years to write. During the years of political activity he had been looking around for a suitable subject and for a little while he even toyed with the idea of writing on the Arthurian legend. But eventually he chose to write on a far greater subject--the fall of Adam and Eve from God's grace and through them, the fall of the human race.

No other poem but Paradise Lost contains such treasures of learning. The Bible, the Talmud, the church Fathers--all have contributed to the outline of the story. The structure and tragic lone of the poem are indebted to Homer and Virgil. But everywhere one will find transfigured for Milton's
own purposes a world of literary tradition, i.e., Greek mythology, the scriptures, Ovid, Ariosto, Tasso, Spenser and many Renaissance writers in Italian, Latin, French and English. The reference, in Milton, to the lore of learning is not mere decoration; it is the very tissue of his thinking. Like the creation of the universe which it celebrates, the poem creates a world that is timeless and placeless: it is the past, the present, and the future.

Theme of "Paradise Lost"
The theme of a literary work is a concept made concrete through its representation in character, action and imagery. The subject of Paradise Lost is Man's disobedience and the ensuing loss of Paradise on earth, but its theme in the simplest term is love. The central episode of Satan'srevolt against God and his defeat by the Son is illuminated as the origin of the difficulties which Man will experience (though not yet created) and as continuous admonition of Satan's defeat before, during, and at the end of mortal time. The thesis of Paradise Lost is that fullrecognition of Eternal Providencew justify to men the ways of God towards men:

"That, to hight of this great argument,
I may assert Etemal Providence,
And justify the ways of God to men".

The justification of God's ways lies in the demonstration that man can learn the nature of God only by knowing the nature of evil, that he can rise only by first having descended, and that obedience is the natural consequence of love.

Structure of "Paradise Lost"
The fable of this epic poem can be read more or less in three distinct parts: the rebellion of the angels and their struggle with God (Books I, II, III and the end of the greater part of Books V and VI); the creation of mankind, the intervention of the Saviour, and the state of man's existence (touched on in Books I, IV, and part of V, VII and VIII); the stratagem of Satan against Man, the disobedience of Adam and Eve, and their banishment from Paradise (Books IX 10 XII).

The universe of “Paradise Lost
"Every great work of art creates its own universe that obeys its own aginative laws. As we read on, or look, or listen, we come to learn what may be  expected and what may not, what we can demand and what we cannot or should not ask." This view of Helen Gardner is very sensible and we should agree with her that the universe of Paradise Lost is intensely dramatic and filled with energies and wills. But besides having an unprecedented concen-
tration, Milton's epic also has a wider scope in time and space than any other epic poem. It ranges from the height of Heaven to the depth of Hell. In Helen Gardner's words: "Milton's conception of his subject is the source of what has always been regarded as one of the chief glories of Paradise Lost, its wealth of epic similes". And to say that Milton's world is lacking in sharp outlines is to completely overlook the nature of his subject as he conceived it.

Paradise Lost is the outcome of a Puritan's deep reflections on the Bible. And though Milion accepts the whole of biblical history as genuine and sacred, he takes great liberty in interpreting it. The outcome is a ceaseless conflict between his faith and his temperament--a universe, with its wealth of epic similes which keeps us charmed all the way through.

Milton's style "A wealth of epic similes"
"The name of Milton", says Raleigh, "is become the mark, not of a biography, not of a theme, but of a style, the most distinguished in our
poetry." Milton's is the language, says Pattison, "of one who lives in the companionship of the great and the wise of the past time." It would not be wrong to say that the word "sublimity"best describes Milton's mature style.

The portrait of Satan in Book I is an ample proof:-
He, above the rest
In shape and gesture, proudly eminent,
Stood like a tower, his form had yet not lost
All her original brightness, nor appeared
Less than Archangel ruined, and the excess,
or glory obscured: as when the sun new-risen
Looks through the horizontal misty air
Shom of his beams or from behind the moon,
In dim eclipse, disastrous twilight shades,
On half the nations, and with fear of change
Perplexes monarchs 

Images of a tower, an Archangel, the sun rising through mists, or in an Oclipse, the ruin of monarchs, and the revolutions of kingdoms--this crowd of great and confused images affectus exactly because they are crowded and confused. The images used in poetry are always of this obscure kind. His remoteness from common speech is not a defect. As Tillyard puts it: "The heightened style of Paradise Lost was something demanded of him as an epic Poeta rigour against which there was no possible appeal". In fact Milton's vast learning became a part and parcel of his poetic sensibility. Satan's size and power is compared to "that sea-beast Leviathan". He compares the vast number and confusion of the fallen angels too "thick as autumnal leaves that strew the brooks in Vallombrosa". The truth is that Paradise Lost is resplendent with such epic similes.

Characterisation in "Paradise Lost"
The character of Satan strikes us as the most impressive figure in Paradise Lost. The poet's great achievement lies not only in the portrayal of the majestic figure of Books I and II but in the slow and steady degeneration of the “arch fiend" into a slimy, deceitful serpent. The portrayal of Satan in the first two Books is such that a controversy has cropped up about the hero of this epic. Many critics have taken Satan to be the hero. This misinterpretation, perhaps, is due to the fact that such a view is based on the tragic figure
reading of the first two books only. In fact the hero is Adama in many ways. Adam's character, though not as dynamic as Satan's is nevertheless very finely etched. Adam's role is not that of a warrior (which Satan is) but that of a God-fearing man, faced with temptation and defeated in the conflict between himself and Satan. But the defeat is not final. Through
the help of the Messiah (Christ, the son of God), Adam regains the Paradise "happier far".

There are some critics who feel, that either God or the Messiah is the hero of this epic. This seems to be an absurd thesis. Neither God nor the Messiah take part in the central action of “Paradise Lost". It is true that Adam has a somewhat passive role as well but the fact remains that the whole epic turns round 'man's first disobedience'. Adam disobeyed God, and by this act of disobedience, he not only lost Paradise but brought about the fall of the whole human race. No action can be more tremendous in its import and significance than that which brought the fall of the whole of humanity. And Adam being responsible for it, is obviously meant by the poet to fill the role of the hero of the great poem. Ultimately, Adam and his race come out triumphant by the grace of God and regain the lost Paradise.

Conclusion
In the final analysis Milton's Paradise Lost proves to be a stupendous work of art which offers idea and conclusion for man in all ages. Down the ages, all men have been concerned with what seems to be a discrepancy between a benevolent and omnipotent God and their own state of ill-war, famine, disease and death. Though many critics have stressed the analysis of evil which the poem presents thereby producing the major controversies over the poem it also analyses good, and it is by this idea of good that the seeming discrepancy is annulled.

Poetic Style in "Don Juan" by Lord Byron.



Don Juan is one of the great poems in English language. It is a performance of rare artistic skill. "Humour, sentiment, adventure and pathos are thrown together with that some disconcerting incongruity as they are to be found in real life. The style is a clever imitation of the idioms and phrasing of ordinary conversation, used with great cunning for satiric and comic effect."

Byron has efficiently used ottava rima in Don Juan. It is a eight-lined stanza, the rhyme scheme of which is ab ab ab cc. The lines are iambic pentameter and the last two lines form a couplet and each line contains eleven syllables. It was brought from Italian into English by Sir Thomas Wyatt in the first half of the 16th century. Although employed by a number of earlier poets, it is notable especially as the stanza which helped Byron to write the satiric poem Don Juan.

Byron is a superb artist in his use of irony in Don Juan. In the poem we find that Donna Inez wants to make her son, Juan, a paragon or an all round man. She arranges his education carefully. She includes in his syllabus the works of the great authors, having no least touch of sexuality. She does not allow him to mix with bad boys. But it is ironical that his later life is dominated by sexual love. It is also ironical that though Inez wants to keep her son aloof from any immorality, she herself was and is involved in illicit affair with
Alfonso.

He uses allusion very successfully. To points out the loose morality of Donna Inez, Byron refers to the Spartan ladies who wers women of loose moral. They were not moved by the death of the husbands. If their husbands were killed, they cheerfully chose next. Again, Byron compares Juan to Medea, the heroine of Ovo
Miss Medea, to describe the craziness of Juan's love for Julia.

In Don Juan Byron uses digressions, that is, inserts materials lated or distantly related to the main subject. In the poem ression is sometime so lengthy that it becomes an excursus. Byron digressions to describe the characters of the poem such as Jose, Inez and Julia. He has taken many stanzas to describe these characters. He has taken several stanzas to describe great heroes and
to describe various types of sweet things.

His style of selecting hero for his epic is different from others. He selects an uncommon hero to expose hypocrisy and corruption of the high society. Most epic poets starts in the middle of the story and hero expresses the past by way of episode. But Byron's method is different. He says:

That is the usual method, but not mine;
My way is to begin with the beginning.

Though a romantic, Byron has a peculiar fascination for the Augustan poetic diction. He abandons the romantic view of the imagination and practised a new realistic art. He is a realist in poetry and seeks to present the pictures of social life as he viewed in his life. In Don Juan he says:

I mean to show things really as they are
Not as they ought to be.

However, much of Byron's poetry seems tawdry and commonplace. He is often noisy and declamatory rather than poetical. Since he has to write in haste, he often becomes clumsy and loose But in spite of his faults "he has amazing vitality and power, and in his most impassioned moods his verse rushes on like a torrent."

The theme of colonialism in "Robinson Crusoe" by Daniel Defoe.



The novel Robinson Crusoe by Daniel Defoe deals with various kinds of theme. The theme of colonialism is one of them. Some critics like Earnest A. Baker think that Colonialism is the ultimate theme of this novel. Daniel Defoe was born in the year 1660 and his protagonist Robinson Crusoe was born in 1632. The seventeenth century Europe was crazy of discovering new lands across the sea to make them the colonies of European Countries. The
people of Europe were not happy with the prosperity they had because of their development in the field of science and technology. They wanted to capture the earth and rule the people of the whole world. We see at the beginning of the novel, Robinson Crusoe fighting against his parents to go to the sea for a life of adventure and unlimited riches. His father was a middle class business man and he was quite content with his middle state of life. He wanted his son to be a lawyer and become satisfied with the income of his profession. But Crusoe was a young man with the spirit of his time. He could not think himself happy with the life his father and mother lived. On the one hand Crusoe wanted a life of adventure and on the other hand he wanted to be very rich man. So his father could not bridle him to live.at home and do as his father desired.

Rescued by the captain of a Portuguese ship Robinson Crusoe
came to Brazil and wanted to settle there as a businessman. He started his business of plantation in Brazil with some other partners. He did well in producing sugar and tobacco and made a remarkable progress in the trade of plantation. He pledged again and again never to go to sea. But he could not keep his oath. Crusoe, instigated by some of his partners, planned to go to New Guinea to buy slaves and make trade of Gold. Actually the colonial spirit of Crusoe could not let him settle in Brazil. The sea called him to sail and to find out any new place to colonize.

When Crusoe's ship was perished by furious storm and he was thrown alone on the desolate island he felt himself quite helpless. But he was thankful to God that he was saved when all his companions were perished in the sea. Crusoe was all alone in the unknown island, but he was not totally disappointed. His colonial spirit kept him burning even in that strange island where he was the only man to live. He made an abode at a safe place to protect himself from any danger. His colonial spirit did not sink at any adversity. Sometimes he was dismayed to think of his loneliness in a desolate island, but very soon he was delighted to think himself the unchallenged
emperor of a land enriched with lot of wealths.

Robinson Crusoe was in the desolate island more than twenty eight years. Day by day he was used with any adverse situation of the island. He began to think that all things of the island were his personal property. When he saw the footprint on the sand of the seashore he was ned. He thought that at any moment he can
be attacked by the savages living somewhere near about him. At the
same time he was afraid of losing the ownership of the island. The colonial mind of Crusoe was terribly shaken by the sight of the footprint on the seashore. His peace of mind was totally perturbed as he saw the cannibals feasting upon the human flesh on the seashore of the island. He wanted to kill all the cannibals though he did not do so. He saved Friday from the cannibals and called him 'my man' from the belief that Friday was his personal property. Then he saved a Spaniard and Friday's father and thought them his subjects. He sent Fridays father and the Spaniard to the nearby island to bring the other European from there with the view to increase the number of his subjects in his island. He helped the captain of the English ship to capture the mutineers and was successful to do so. He left his island leaving behind the three sailors and instructed them to treat well with the white men who were supposed to reach from the nearly
island with the Spaniard and Fridays father.

At the last pages of the book we see Crusoe going again to a voyage to the East Indies. On the way, he visited his island. He was happy to see the island dominated by the Spaniards. Later on he sent them some workmen like carpenters and blacksmiths. He sent some English women to increase the white men in his island. Thus Crusoe established a new colony in the island where he happened to be left by a bad chance.

Byron's "Don Juan" as a social satire.



Byron was one of the most powerful satirists of England during the 19th century. He had a great liking for Alexander Pope, the prince of satirists in the 18th century and for Gifford, his worthy successor. He closely imitated their form and style in his satires. Don Juan is his highest achievement in which he unbosoms the digressions of the high society. He uses wit, humour and irony to
maurise the hypocrisy and corruption of the society. 

Don Juan is an epic satire which records the panoramic survey of human society, with foibles and weaknesses of social institutions, and political personalities. Byron himself speaks of the work as an epic satire:

In the poem Byron satirised the code of love prevailing at the moment. There is no existence of true love, no conjugal happiness Women are hypocrite and unfaithful to their husbands.

The hypocrisy of woman is satirised in the character of both Inez and Julia. Donna is not happy with the passivity of her husban, Don Jose. Her relationship with her husband is not based on love. There was a rumour that Don Jose had a mistress, but some say, two. It was the source of quarrel between Inez and Jose. She even called and physicians to prove that Jose had gone mad.

After the death of Don Jose, Inez wanted to make her son Juan an all round man. She wanted to keep him aloof from immorality or corruption. She chose for his education the works of great authors, having no touch of sexual affair. But it is ironical that his later life is dominated by sexual love. And for Inez we know that, though she is a pious and devoted Christian, she had love-affair with Alfonso before her marriage and continued the affair even after her marriage. She pretends to maintain friendship with Julia in order to continue her affair with Alfonso. She lets Juan mix with Julia to open Alfonso's eyes in order to keep him in the way of an illicit love affair.

Julia is another hypocrite woman of the society. She is a woman of twenty-three married to Alfonso, a man of fifty. He cannot satisfy her carnal desire. So she decides to pluck sexual pleasure from Juan a youth of sixteen. But for the sake of honour and religion, she, then wants to keep herself away from him. Afterwards, she wants to maintain Platonic love with Juan. She fails to resist her temptation and falls victim to lust. When she is in bed with Juan, her suspicious husband comes to investigate, but fails to detect Juan. At this she severely rebukes her husband for his suspicion towards her. To prove her innocenee, she pretends weeping and goes into a fainting fit. Ultimately Juan is discovered. Here Julia is a perfect hypocrite.

Thus Byron in the poem satirises marriage without love. The society may support marriage without love but we know that it paves the way for illicit love affairs, as we find in the conjugal life of Jose and Inez as well as Alfonso and Julia. Byron here satirises arranged marriage and free sex of the society, which even gives birth to an illegitimate child, He conveys this satire through the information of Julia's grandmother who begot Julia's father without marriage.

Thus Byron is a successful satirist in English language. In the poem Don Juan, Canto I, he attacks abuses of virtue and morality, hypocrisy of women, infidelity of both husbands and wives. But everywhere he has used wit, humour and irony as his weapons to attack them.

Don Juan is a typical Byronic hero in "Don Juan".




Byronic hero is different from a stereotype or traditional hero. A traditional hero is a man of extra ordinary personality who fight for the of his nation and tries to establish justice and peace in the society. Byron wants to expose hypocrisy and corruption high society through his hero. So he selects an uncommon type of hero:

I want a hero; an uncommon want.

In the Byronic hero are represented the essential qualities and caracteristics that were found in Byron himself. The Byronic heroes are projections of Byron's own personality, his likings and disliking, his hatreds and antipathies . Juan, the Byronic hero, is Byron's mouthpiece through whom he satirises the existing society. Juan falls in love with Julia who is a woman of twenty-three, married to Alfonso, a man of fifty. He cannot satisfy her physical demand, so she
falls in love with Juan to pluck sensual pleasure from him. Thus Juan serves the purpose of a satirist by saying that the marriage of unequal age and different mentality cannot bring peace for the couple.
Through Juan's illicit physical relation with Julia, Byron satirises the arranged marriage between two persons of unequal age.

The Byronic hero is a rogue and so is Juan. He is a mischief making monkey from his birth. He is given education. The syllabus of his education is designed by his mother. In the syllabus she includes the works of the great authors. In the syllabus there was no text which has the least touch of sexuality. Besides, he was not allowed to mix with the bad boys. In spite of that, Juan becomes a rogue. His later life is dominated by sexual love. He does not mind establishing physical relation with a mother-like married woman, Julia, who is his mother's friend.

The Byronic hero is an embodiment of restlessness and Juan is Seen restless at the embarrassing moment when he surprisingly realises his passion for Julia. The pensive pressure of his mind makes him sad and it appears that his heart has withered, and the capacity for happiness gone to melancholy. But his soul opens itself fully to pluck the pleasure of the passionate love and then enjoys the pleasure of sex.

The Byronic hero represents pride and bravery. He is indomitable. He loves freedom and revolts against oppression and estraint. Similarly, Juan wants to be defeated by nobody. When he is detected by Alfonso in the bed chamber of Julia, he boldly faces the situation. Alfonso wants to kill him with his sword. But Juan, Doring the threat of the sword, knocks Alfonso down and causes to
ea blood from his nose. Beating Alfonso, Juan managed to flee but at the cost of his only dress.

The Byronic hero is very much adventurous. He is brave enough to set sail to the unknown seas as well as for uncertain life. The story of Don Juan is the story of adventure of its hero, Juan. When he is caught red handed by Alfonso in Julia's bed chamber, his mother orders him to travel across various European countries in order to rectify his past morality or gain new morality.

Thus Byronic hero is the reflection of Byron himself. He represents immorality, sexuality, bravery, pride, restlessness, wickedness, melancholy, freedom, opposition to oppression and restraint.

Critical Appreciation of the poem "Words" by Sylvia plath.


Critical Appreciation
This poem was written in the same month that Sylvia Plath died in February 1963. The poem is written entirely in metaphor, the title serves as an important clue to meaning. For
the reader, the poem is about "words” and by inference poetry. The interlocking nature of the metaphors unifies the poem and
leads the reader to understanding.

The poem opens with an image of axes. Axes are sharp and their purpose is to cut wood. Words when released for consumption can be sharp and cutting. Words can travel like echo from the centre like horses and can reach the mind of many. Words are like sap in the wood, an essential part of being. Similarly words like axes hurt so deep that tears fall like water and petrify one's self. The feeling of sorrow tries to
reaffirm its place into the speaker's expression of the work of art. Those who ventures to remain in the world of creativity for long symbolized by the horse in the next stanza soon meet their ends and regenerates life from their destruction. Dry and
uncontrolled words are indefatigable like the hoof-taps of the wild horses. The world of creativity symbolized by wild horse is eternal. But human lives are controlled by fate.

In this poem, the essential figures of speeches that Plath uses are progressive linking of subtly changing imagery to mirror a changing mental state as more than a device for seeing experience in a new light. Axe strokes are an image of power and controlled force. Galloping horses are exhilarating but
imply the potential for loss of control. In stanza 2, the welling sap and tears suggest a reaction to the preceding violent energy, a wounded state. In stanza 3, the descent of the rock
into the pool mirrors a mental descent into a nightmarish world where stones become skulls and the creative mind is a dead and empty shell. The imagery of Words" lets the reader into the trapped nightmare world of that mind, a world unseen by
outside observer because the water has smoothed over and is now a mirror that hides the depths.

In the last two lines of the third stanza and the first two of the last, the poet rises briefly from the depths and sees her past work. Now, "years later," her words seem meaningless. "Dry and riderless," they have lost the urgency of their creation.Finally, the effort of creativity seems too much. The exhilaration has given way to the relentless demands of the
"indefatigable hoof-taps," and the mood is of surrender to inevitability. The metaphoric movement is from energy to stasis, from manic creative  pain, to madness, to brief barren lucidity, and finally to quiescence, the still certainty of the bottom of the pool. The ultimate quiescence is death. The movement towards death is a pervasive theme in Plath's poetry, and she has used similar imagery elsewhere. At the end of "Words," the poet has surrendered to the "fixed star” of death that has pervaded her life and her work. Among other techniques, the poet uses repetition to reinforce her meaning. The almost physical sense of vibration coupled with the repetition of the word "echoes” links the axe image to that of horses galloping.

"Words” is a short poem in four stanzas of five lines each. It is written in an open form with irregular meter and only occasional rhyme. Because the poem is written entirely metaphor, the title serves as an important clue to meanin. Metaphor is the overriding device of "Words." Because there is no narrative framework, even a superficial reading requires some interpretation of its metaphor. Plath does not make Teader Slask easy, but she does supply the clues. The interlocking nature of the metaphors unifies the poem and leads the reader to understanding. One does not encounter the narrator until near the end of the third stanza. At this point, one sees that the poem is written in the first person, and it becomes clearer that preceding stanzas are the thoughts of the poet as she meditates on her subject, words. The lack of a discernible narrator here allows the reader to enter the poem and feel the physical sensation of impact. This is a particularly apt image for Sylvia Plath's poetic style, which is frequently sharp and biting.

Poets, particularly those of the confessional school to which Plath belongs, often use their work as catharsis, as a way of healing. Certainly there is a sense of attempted healing in the sap that tries to seal the wounded flesh of the tree and tears that can release psychic pain. Thus this short poem is worth reading because it uses words in new and intriguing ways. Plath's use of metaphoric images is vivid and original, and she manipulates images evocatively throughout her work. This is a visual poetry of a high order. Finally, the poem demonstrates a distinct spiritual dimension of the poet's life governed by something outside herself, something fixed and external as the
stars above the universe.